Jatropha Curcas For BioDiesel

Bio Diesel is the way of the future

For a truly renewable source of oil, crops or other similar cultivatable sources would have to be considered. Plants can offer a sustainable oil source for bio diesel production. Different plants produce usable oil at different rates. Some studies have shown the following annual producing capabilities as follows per hectare in liters:

Soybean - 400 - 450
Sunflower - 600 - 800
Rapeseed - 1200
Jatropha curcas - 4000

The oil producing capabilities of the Jatropha tree furthermore seemed to outmatch its nearest competition by far. Sources suggest that Jatropha curcas can even produce up to 6000 liters of oil per hectare.

Jatropha curcas, also known as the “Physic Nut” originated in the Caribbean. It’s a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in marginal soil. Easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and lives, producing seeds for 50 years. Jatropha plant produces seeds with an oil content of 35%. Early laboratory tests have shown that the oil from Jatropha curcas has, among others, the iodine value, cloud point and pour point highly desirable in bio diesel. Jatropha oil is said to be superior or comparable to many of the plant-based fuels being developed or already available in the market. The oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. It burns with clear smoke-free flame, tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer, which contains 3.2 % Nitrogen, 1.4% phosphorus and 1.2% potash. The oil is also used as lubricants, soap, candle manufacturing and its oil, contains insecticide. It has also been reported as hair growth stimulant and thus can be used as hair oil. In animals or livestock, its application is useful against sores.


Jatropha farming requires to be systematically managed for better growth and production. Its growth and seed yield could be improved through effective management methodology. The key factors that influence the plantation of Jatropha are as follows:
1. Climate
2. Quality of the soil
3. Irrigation
4. Weeding
5. Use of fertilizer
6. Crop density
7. Use of pesticide
8. Inter-cropping
9. Labour
10. Crop Yield
11. Germination
12. Process and Handling
13. Storage and Viability


Able to withstand tropical heat, and doing well in warmer areas.

Quality of the soil

Sandy well-drained soils. Can withstand very poor soils and grow in saline conditions.


Jatropha handles dryness very well and it is possible to live almost entirely of humidity in the air. It will also stand for long periods without water and then grow again when rains occur again.


Standard practices are timely weeding (2 - 4 times a year), proper fertilization, surface ploughing and pruning. With these management practices a yield around 15-20 kg of fruit per tree can be obtained even, if the plants did not reach full maturity.

Use of fertilizer

Jatropha can adapt to low fertility sites and alkaline soils, better yields seem to be obtained on poor quality soils, if fertilizers containing small amounts of calcium, magnesium, and sulphur are used.
Crop density
Spacing: 2 meters X 2 meters. Wider spacing is reported to give larger yields of fruit. Plants: 2,500 of plants per hectare.


Pruning – 1st prune. The plants need to produce side shoots for maximum sprouting and maximum flowers and seed. Between 90 and 120 days, first pruning is done when the plant attains 1 metre height, cut the top off cleanly and cut top will produce 8 – 12 side branches. It is considered good practice. In order to facilitate the harvesting, it is suggested to keep the tree less than 2 meters.


Specific intolerance with other crops was not detected. On the contrary the shade can be exploited by shade-loving herbal plants; vegetables such red and green peppers, tomatoes, etc.


Harvesting is done by hand plucking. One person could collect and decorticate 25-30 kg seed per day.

Crop Yield

It appears very difficult to estimate unequivocally the yield of a plant that is able to grow in very different conditions. Yield is a function of water, nutrients, heat and the age of the plant and other. Many different methods of establishment, farming and harvesting are possible. Oil yield from established plantations can yield around 1.5 to 2.3 tons per hectare. Yield can be enhanced with right balance of cost, yield, labour and finally cost per Mt. Seed production ranges from about 2 tons per hectare per year to over 12.5 tan/hectare/year, after 5 years of growth. Although not clearly specified, this range in production may be attributable to low and high rainfall areas.


Fresh seeds show dormancy and after-ripening is necessary before the seeds can germinate. Dry seed will normally germinate readily without pre-treatment. If this is the case, it is not recommended to remove the seed coat before sowing. Although it speeds up germination there is a risk of getting abnormal seed-lings.

Processing and Handling

The collected fruits are transported in open bags to the processing site. The harvested fruits should be sun dried for 6-8 hours until all the fruits have opened for easy removal of the seeds. It has been reported that direct sun has a negative effect on seed viability and that seeds should be dried in the shade. When the seeds are dry, they are separated from the fruits and cleaned.

Storage and Viability

The seeds should be dried to low moisture content (5-7%) and stored in air-tight containers. At room temperature, the seeds can retain high viability for one year. However, because of the high oil content the seeds cannot be expected to store for too long. Seeds older than 12 months show viability below 50%. High levels of viability and low levels of germination shortly after harvest indicate innate (primary) dormancy.

Info Bionas

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Chilly Flowers

Today is 29.04.09 and day-42 after transplant. The chilly plant about 1 1/2 feet height and grow healthy with new branches coming out. I'm expected another 3-4 weeks for the chillies can be harvested and will last maybe for 3-4 months after that. By the way, this is first experience for me in planting of little chilly.

A beautiful little flowers to be chilly fruits.

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Fertilizing Basics

It pays to know why, what, how, and when to feed your plants

What plants need

The three essential elements that all plants need are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium—or N-P-K, the proportions of which are stated as numbers on the package. For instance, a general-purpose fertilizer labeled 20-20-20 means that each chemical element—N, P, and K—contributes 20 percent by weight to the total formula (the remaining 40 percent is composed of inert materials and trace elements). The element percentages are offered in varying proportions to suit different fertil­izer needs. If you are looking to boost flower production, you want a mix like 15-30-15, which is high in flower-developing phosphorus. If you want to green up your lawn, choose a mix like 25-6-4, which is high in nitrogen. Many fertilizers are formulated for specific plants like roses, bulbs, or vegetables. Be sure to check the label for the N-P-K ratio, as you may be able to use a general fertilizer with close to the same nutrient percentages but at a lower price.

In addition to N-P-K, most fertilizers contain traces of other elements important to plant health. Some trace elements are more important than others, but each nourishes a plant in its own way. The main trace elements in fertilizers are calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, boron, and sulfur (you can usually purchase these items individually as well). If any of these elements are lacking, a plant may show characteristic deficiency symptoms. An iron deficiency, for instance, causes chlorosis (yellow leaves with green veins), which is easily corrected with a dose of chelated iron.

There are quite a number of fertilizers available today, both organic (plant and animal derived) and inorganic (chemically derived). While the majority are commercially produced inorganic fertilizers, there are a few options for the organic gardener. Many rely on the old standbys—animal manure and compost—which, although organic and good for soil building, actually contain few nutrients. For flower and fruit development, bonemeal with a high phosphorus count is the organic of choice, while blood meal is a good source of nitrogen.

How to choose

There are two types of fertilizers available to the home gardener: granular and water soluble. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. Granular fertilizers deliver food to a plant slowly but have the advantage of longevity. Since they must be broken down by water before a plant can use them, granular fertilizers do not leach out of the soil as rapidly as water-soluble types. Water-soluble fertilizers are faster acting but more transient, which means they must be applied more frequently than the granular type.

Both types of fertilizers are effective, so the one you choose depends on whether you want to give your plants a quick but frequent fix or a sluggish but extended feeding. And for those of us gardeners who are oh so very busy (or oh so very lazy), nothing beats time-release granular fertilizers, some of which require only one application every six to nine months.

There are several ways to apply granular and water-soluble fertilizers, but there are a few general guidelines that one should follow when applying them. Avoid applying a fertilizer on windy or rainy days. This can cause it to be misplaced and ineffective. When using a granular fertilizer, always be sure to knock the fertilizer off plant leaves to avoid burn. Never apply a granular fertilizer when the soil is extremely dry, and water it in thoroughly after applying to prevent plant burn.

When to fertilize

Knowing when to fertilize is as important as using the right fertilizer. If you don’t apply the fertilizer at a time when the plant can use it, there’s no point in fertilizing. Most perennials, annuals, vegetables, and lawns will reward you handsomely if fed with a balanced granular fertil­izer in early spring. Avoid fertilizing before the spring showers, however, or you will be throwing your money away, since the nutrients will simply leach out of the soil. Annuals like to be fed an additional three to four times during the growing season with a high-phosphorus, water-soluble fertilizer, while lawns benefit from a second granular application in early fall.

No matter how hard one tries, it’s tough to transform the topic of fertilizers into lively con­ver­­sation. But for all gardeners, knowledge of fertilizers and how to apply them effectively is as crucial to vigorous plant growth as knowing a plant’s har­diness zones. So in the interest of growing healthy plants, what follows is a brief discussion of the why, what, how, and when of applying these multi­vitamins.

Three prime chemical elements are found in all mixed fertilizers:
N = Nitrogen promotes healthy leaf growth by stimulating the production of chlorophyll (the main chemical involved in photosynthesis—how plants convert sunlight to food).
P = Phosphorus supports the vigorous development of roots, stems, blossoms, and fruits.
K = Potassium plays a key role in helping plants digest and manufacture their foods.

Why plants need fertilizers

All of the nutrients essential to plant growth are present in the soil or are floating in the air, so what’s the point of fertilizing? The point is that not all plants can access the key nutrients found in the soil or in the air. Each soil type has its own mix of nutritional ingredients, so before considering what fer­tilizers a plant may require, we need to con­sider the soil in which a plant is growing. Activities like intensive farming, construction, and traffic can alter soil chemistry and structure, limiting the nutrients that plants can use. In some cases, the nutrients aren’t naturally there to begin with or have been leached out over time. For these reasons, we, the diggers of the dirt and keepers of the garden, must replenish, replace, or help release those elements that are beyond the reach of our plants.

When it comes to fertilizing, more does not mean better. It is possible to overfeed your plants. Too much fertilizer can damage and maybe even kill your plants. Before applying any fertilizer, it’s a good idea to have your soil tested so you can select the type and formula that suits your plants’ needs. In return, our plants will reward us with bigger flowers, bigger leaves, and bigger fruits and vegetables.

Roses have insatiable appetites. To keep them fat and happy, feed them with a soluble fertilizer every seven days during their blooming season. “Weekly, weakly” is the feeding mantra for all roses. One final thought: Feed only well-established plants; fertilizing seeds or tiny seedlings will cause fertilizer burn.

Just remember, these guidelines on feeding are just that—guidelines. Read the package directions before scattering both food and caution to the wind.

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Vege Flowers Makes My Vege Garden Looks Nice

Today is day-35 after transplant into polibag. A close up view from top of my tomato plant. . A few flowers to be a little fruits and of course I want to see all my tomatoes plant full with tomatoes fruits.

Male flower from cucumber plant. I plan maybe tomorrow or another two days to harvest the cucumbers.

A little chilly start flowering out from new branches.

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How To Prune a Tomato Plant

How to manage your plants for better health and better fruit
by Frank Ferrandino

A tomato is a solar-powered sugar factory. For the first month or so, all of the sugar it produces is directed towards new leaf growth. During this stage, tomato plants grow very rapidly, doubling their size every 12 to 15 days. Eventually, the plants make more sugar than the single growing tip can use, which signals the plant to make new branches and to flower. This usually happens after 10 to 13 leaves have expanded, at which time the plant is 12 to 18 inches tall. In the next few weeks, the entire character of the tomato plant changes. If unsupported, the increasing weight of filling fruit and multiple side branches forces the plant to lie on the ground. Once the main stem is horizontal, there is an increased tendency to branch. Left to its own devices, a vigorous indeterminate tomato plant can easily cover a 4- by 4-foot area with as many as 10 stems, each 3 to 5 feet long. By season's end, it will be an unsightly, impenetrable, disease-wracked tangle.

Prune for plant structure and health

With tomatoes, we want to maximize the efficiency of photosynthesis and minimize the risk of disease. This is best accomplished by ensuring that each leaf has plenty of room and is supported up off the ground. When a tomato plant lies on the ground, or when its growth is extremely dense, many of its leaves are forced into permanent shade, greatly reducing the amount of sugar they produce. If a leaf uses more sugar than it makes, eventually it will yellow and drop off. A pruned and staked plant will produce larger fruit two to three weeks earlier than a prostrate one.

A properly pruned and supported single-stem tomato plant presents all of its leaves to the sun. Most of the sugar produced is directed to the developing fruit, since the only competition is a single growing tip. The result is large fruits that are steadily produced until frost. If more stems are allowed to develop, some of the precious sugar production is diverted from fruit to multiple growing tips. Fruit production, although slowed, never stops. The result is a nearly continuous supply of fruits throughout the season. In general, more stems means more but smaller fruits, which are produced increasingly later in the season. (This is much less applicable to determinate plants, due to their shortened growing season and better-defined fruiting period. Therefore, determinate plants require little pruning. See "Indeterminate vs. Determinate," below.)

Pruning also affects plant health. The leaves of a pruned and supported plant dry off faster, so bacterial and fungal pathogens have less opportunity to spread. Soil is less liable to splash up onto staked plants. The bottom line: Upright plants have fewer problems with leaf spots and fruit rots because their leaves stay drier and free from pathogen-laden soil.

The way you choose to train and prune your tomato plants will affect how you space your plants, as well as the best method of support . There's no one right way to do it. Instead there are a few good patterns to follow.

Simple vs. Missouri pruning
There are two ways to deal with a sucker that isn't destined to become a stem. The simplest is to pinch it off entirely; not surprisingly, this is called "simple pruning." This should be done when the sucker is still small and succulent. Grab the base of it between your thumb and index finger and bend it back and forth. The sucker should snap off, producing a small wound that will heal quickly. Avoid cutting the sucker with a knife or scissors, because the resulting stump can become easily infected. Once a sucker becomes too tough and leathery to snap off, however, you'll have to use a blade. I recommend a retractable razor knife.

In Missouri pruning, you pinch out just the tip of the sucker, letting one or two leaves remain. The advantage is that the plant has more leaf area for photosynthesis and to protect developing fruit from sun-scald. The disadvantage is that new suckers inevitably develop along the side stems, adding to your future pruning chores.

Missouri pruning is necessary when things have gotten out of hand. When you're dealing with large suckers, it's better to pinch off just the tip than to cut off the whole thing close to the main stem. For one thing, if disease hits, it's farther away from the main stem. And for another, removing just the growing tip is less of a shock to the plant than removing a foot or so of side stem.

Suckers grow very quickly during the hot summer months. This is indeed a situation that tests one's resolve. It helps to know that side stems started this late in the season will always be spindly and produce inferior fruit. You must be heartless and tip them all.

How to tie a tomato

Once flowering commences, all tomato vines must be tied to their supports. Although vigorous, the plants are also easily damaged, so take care in how you tie them and what you use. Cloth strips work well as long as they're not too old and threadbare. Pieces of panty hose cause the least damage to plants, but they're not biodegradable. Twine should be at least 1/8 inch thick, or else it can cut into the tomato stems.

There are two types of ties. Training ties direct plant growth upwards, and supporting ties keep it there. The top foot of a tomato stem, or leader, is very succulent and easily snapped; it needs to be directed upwards, gently. I wrap a short piece of twine around the middle of the leader, cross it over on itself, and loosely tie it to the support. The resulting figure-eight tie reduces the chance the tender stem will rub against the support and get bruised.

Fruit will form along this stem. If left to the devices of the loose training ties, the weight of the fruit will pull the ties down the stake. Eventually, the stem will bend over and crease. Luckily, as the stem matures, it toughens; by the time fruit develops, the stem can tolerate a tighter tie. To support a fruit cluster as it fills and gains weight, I loop a longer piece of twine, 12 to 18 inches, around the stem just above the fruit cluster, creating a sling. Then I gently pull it up to take the weight off the stem. I wrap the twine twice around the stake, and firmly tie it to the stake 6 to 10 inches higher than the point of attachment to the vine. To keep the tie from slipping, I knot it underneath the point where the sling meets the stake.

Gardener Tip - "Never prune or tie plants when the leaves are wet"

Pruning also affects plant health. The leaves of a pruned and supported plant dry off faster, so bacterial and fungal pathogens have less opportunity to spread. Soil is less liable to splash up onto staked plants. The bottom line: Upright plants have fewer problems with leaf spots and fruit rots because their leaves stay drier and free from pathogen-laden soil.

The way you choose to train and prune your tomato plants will affect how you space your plants, as well as the best method of support . There's no one right way to do it. Instead there are a few good patterns to follow.

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Vegetable Gardening Tips

Vegetable Gardening Tips

1. Keep garden vegetables from getting dirty by spreading a 1-2 inch layer of mulch (untreated by pesticides or fertilizers) around each plant. This will also help keep the weeds down.
2. Compost needs time to integrate and stabilize in the soil. Apply two to three weeks prior to planting.
3. Like vining vegetables, but don't have the room? Train your melons, squash, and cucumbers onto a vertical trellis or fence. Saves space and looks pretty too.
4. Onions are ready to harvest when the tops have fallen over. Let the soil dry out, harvest, and store in a warm, dry, dark place until the tops dry. Cut off the foliage down to an inch, then store in a cool, dry area.
5. When planting a flower or vegetable transplant, deposit a handful of compost into each hole. Compost will provide transplants with an extra boost that lasts throughout the growing season.
6. Insects can't stand plants such as garlic, onions, chives and chrysanthemums. Grow these plants around the garden to help repel insects.
7. Plants will do best if they are well suited to your growing area. Take some time to read up and choose plants accordingly.
8. For easy peas, start them indoors. The germination rate is far better, and the seedlings will be healthier and better able to fight off pests and disease.
9. If you're short on space, garlic, leeks and shallots make excellent container plants. They tend to have few insect or disease problems and don't require much room for roots.
10. Another reason to use natural and organic fertilizers and soil amendments: earthworms love them! Earthworms are extremely beneficial in the vegetable garden; increasing air space in the soil and leaving behind worm castings. Do what you can to encourage earthworms in your soil.
11. Water your garden in the early morning to conserve moisture loss and to help avoid powdery mildew and other fungal diseases that are often spread by high humidity levels.
12. Some vegetables actually become better after a first frost, including kale, cabbage, parsnips, carrots, and Brussels sprouts.
13. When transplanting tomatoes, cover the stem with soil all the way up to the first set of leaves. This greatly encourages root growth, making a stronger, healthier plant.
14. Healthy soil means a thriving population of microbes, earthworms and other organisms. A soil that has "good tilth" will produce robust garden plants that are better able to resist pests and disease.
15. A simple five percent increase in organic material (compost) quadruples the soil's ability to store water.
16. If its getting cold and you have tomatoes still ripening on the vine -- save your tomatoes! Pull the plants up and bring them inside to a warm dry place. Hang them up, and the tomatoes will ripen on the vine.
17. Paint the handles of your gardens tools a bright, color other than green to help you find them amongst your plants. You can also keep a mailbox in your garden for easy tool storage.
18. There is an easy way to mix compost into your soil without a lot of back breaking work: Spread the compost over your garden in the late fall, after all the harvesting is done. Cover with a winter mulch such as hay or chopped leaves and let nature take its course. By spring, the melting snow and soil organisms will have worked the compost in for you.
19. Garden vegetables that become over-ripe are an easy target for some pests. Remove them as soon as possible to avoid detection.
20. Over watering is worse than under watering. It is easier to revive a dry plant than try to dry out drowned roots.

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Transplanting Vegetables

Start Indoors

Before we get to transplanting vegetables, there are few things to consider: primarily, why it's best to start vegetable plants indoors. Several reasons exist for raising seedlings indoors before transplanting them to the garden. The following are some suggestions to keep in mind.

* Seeding indoors to raise transplants conserves seeds.
* There is a higher germination rate, and more high-quality plants can be produced in a greenhouse under controlled environmental conditions.
* Starting seeds indoors extends the growing season. This is important for early yields, since plants can be ready to set out immediately after reasonable risk of frost is past. Earlier harvest is more attainable by using transplants than by direct seeding in the garden.
* Since any variety of seed can be ordered for transplant production, a grower has a much wider selection of varieties.
* The choice of varieties for available transplants is limited to the most popular varieties.

Why transplant?

Transplanting is easy to do and can be enjoyable. It can even be a money-maker for you, and it offers several advantages over buying commercially produced plants.

* Plants are available when you need them, so you don't have to wait for commercial plants to become available.
* There is less danger of getting diseased plants if you follow a few simple precautions.
* You can produce newer varieties not yet available from commercial plant growers.
* You can be sure of getting the variety you want.
* Home-produced transplants grow better after being set in the garden, because they are fresher.

Vegetables to transplant

Tomatoes, peppers, cauliflower, broccoli, eggplant, collards, cabbage and onions are usually started from transplants. If you want watermelons, cantaloupes, cucumbers, squash and other vegetables to yield earlier, you can start them indoors in peat pots.

Containers to consider

Depending on what works best for you, you'll want to consider what container to use when transplanting vegetables. The following is a description of container types and functions.

* Seed flats can be built at home out of thin, sturdy boards or purchased at supply stores. The main advantage of using flats is that more plants can fit into the same space if plants are in flats. However, if you start seeds in flats, you will need to transplant to larger cell packs or to individual pots as the seedlings get bigger.
* Peat pellets are made of compressed sphagnum peat moss contained in mesh, a pellet expands when water is applied, making the peat pot with soil ready to receive the plant or seed.
* Peat cubes are made of mesh and compressed peat moss, cubes are already expanded to receive the plant or seed.
* Peat pots are made of peat moss and other fiber, pots must be filled with soil or growth medium before seed or plants are placed in them.

Time to transplant

Tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage are usually started in seed flats then transplanted to pots so the plants have more room to develop.

Lift the plants from the seed flat when they have developed their first true leaves. Gently pry the plant up as it is being pulled to help prevent breaking the roots. Handle the plant by the leaves, not the stem. If a leaf should break, it will grow back; if you mash the stem, it will interfere with the nutrient transport system and the plant will never recover.

Water the plants after transplanting, being careful not to knock the plants down with a coarse stream of water. A single fine stream of water directed at the base of the plant is better than sprinkling water over the top.

Original article from Plancare.com

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Download Agro e-Book for FREE

+ + and many more..
Panduan Menanam Bawang
Panduan Menanam Bayam
Panduan Menanam Bendi
Panduan Menanam Cili Api
Panduan Menanam Cili
Panduan Menanam Emas Cotek
Panduan Menanam Halia
Panduan Menanam Jagung
Panduan Menanam Kacang Botol
Panduan Menanam Kacang Buncis
Panduan Menanam Kacang Panjang
Panduan Menanam Kangkung
Panduan Menanam Kunyit
Panduan Menanam Limau Nipis
Panduan Menanam Limau Purut
Panduan Menanam Pandan
Panduan Menanam Pegaga
Panduan Menanam Sawi
Panduan Menanam Selom
Panduan Menanam Serai
Panduan Menanam Ulam Raja

There will be more e-Book coming soon. Compilation is in progress. Thank you for your patient.

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Kangkung Hydroponik - 1st Harvest

Hari ini 22.04.2009 merupakan hari yang ke-23 percubaan kali kedua penanaman hydroponik. Pokok kangkung sudah boleh tuai. Tapi memandangkan hanya 4 biji benih yang aku semaikan, jadi kangkung yg tumbuh tak lah banyak...

Aku telah memotong batang kangkung di bahagian pangkalnya dan meninggalkan batang yang paling pangkal bersama-sama dengan akarnya yang terendam di dalam air. Kelihatan tunas daun baru keluar daripada batang kangkung dan boleh lah aku harvest untuk kali kedua lepas ini. Walau bagaimanapun, aku telah menyemai beberapa biji benih kangkung lagi didalam bekas hydroponik memandangkan jangka tempoh tuaian kangkung lebih cepat daripada sayur yang lain. Hasil percubaan yang pertama ini tidak lah banyak tapi cukup la untuk sekali makan kot. Walaubagaimanapun resepi kangkung belacan tetap menjadi masakan kegemaran aku.

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Cili Padi Belajar Berbunga, Timun Dah Matang..

Hari ini 20.04.2009 merupakan hari yang ke 33 selepas transplant kedalam polibag. Alhamdulillah kesemua pokok cili padi masih berada dalam keadaan sihat. Petang ini aku tidak menyangka sama sekali yang pokok cili padi yang masih baru untuk mengeluarkan dahan-dahan barunya sudah mengeluarkan putik-putik bunga. Ini baru minggu yang ke-4, anggapan aku sangat cepat. Kemungkinan tumbesaran pokok cili padi tidak seiring dengan pokok cili (cabai) biasa. Namun begitu ini menjadi satu pembelajaran bagi aku yang masih baru dalam penanaman pokok cili ini.

Sementara pokok timun aku lagi beberapa hari lagi akan memulakan hari tuaiannya yang pertama. Seterusnya berkemungkinan selang 2-3 hari selepas itu pokok timun akan mengeluarkan hasil tuaiannya sehingga tempoh sebulan berbuah dan pokok akan mati.

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Cili Hybrid F1 939

Pada awalnya aku tak pernah mendengar varieti cili hybrid F1 939 yang di perkhabarkan oleh seorang kawan aku. Tapi petang tadi, dia telah melawat ladang cili fertigasi milik seorang kawannya yang tinggal berdekatan dengan rumahnya. Ladang cili tersebut area Seri Bunian, Pontian..kalau di lihat dalam gambar yang aku postkan ini memang agak luar biasa besar dan panjang cili hybrid 939 nih..agak berlainan jika nak di bandingkan cili hybrid F1 568 atau pun cili hybrid kulai 223 atau pun cili 8338 kulai king. Biasanya panjang buah cili boleh mencecah sehingga 7 inci panjangnya aku bandingkan dengan cili kulai hybrid 568. Namun kali ini apabila kawan aku tadi menghantar gambar kepada aku, baru lah aku terkejut, sangat besar, gemuk dan juga panjang. Beratnya 200 g untuk 4 biji cili, jadi bayangkan 12 biji cili kulai hybrid F1 939 boleh mencecah berat 1 kg. Percaya atau tidak?. Panjangnya adalah 9 inci !
Jika di lihat kepada kawasan ladang cili fertigasi milik kawannya itu, terus menjadi inspirasi kepada aku untuk lebih nak mengenali jenis cili ini seterusnya ingin mencuba menanamnya. Jika ada rezeki ingin aku mencubanya nanti...

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Di kala Mengingati Kangkung Hydroponik

Sebentar tadi sedang aku membelek-belek gambar dalam pc nih..terlihat kangkung hydroponik aku yang hampir matang untuk di tuai. Mungkin minggu depan boleh lah aku tuai dan biarkan ianya tumbuh lagi sementara akarnya masih boleh menyerap larutan baja hydroponik dalam takungan itu. Untuk pengetahuan pembaca, jika menanam kangkung di dalam bekas hydroponik, jangan di cabut akarnya semasa menuainya kerana tunas baru akan tumbuh untuk memulakan kitaran kali kedua dan seterusnya. Jadi tak perlu lah nak tunggu benih bercambah lagi. Oppss..terlupa pulak aku. Sebenarnya aku nak berkongsi resepi dengan pembaca di sini iaitu memasak kangkung belacan. Jom tengok!

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Cili Padi vs Tomato Hybrid

Jika di lihat kepada saiz pokok cili padi dengan pokok tomato hybrid yang aku tanam, tidak lah ketara sangat tingginya, cuma pokok tomato lebih tinggi dan fizikalnya yang jauh berbeza. Cuma pokok tomato tu di tanam lewat 4 hari daripada hari aku mula menanam pokok tomato. Kedua-dua pokok cili padi atau tomato masih belum kuat untuk berdiri tegak dan memerlukan buluh penyokong bagi mengelakkan ianya rebah apabila di tiup angin kuat dan hujan yang lebat. Memandangkan sekarang ini tiap-tiap hari hujan, maka aku telah menguatkan sokongan pada pokok tomato dan cili tersebut.

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Timun Hari Ke-31

Hari ini 16.04.2008 pokok timun sedang rancak mengeluarkan putik-putik timun dan bersedia untuk membesar dan di petik. Aku kira lagi 2-3 minggu baru boleh petik buah timun tersebut. Moga-moga tiada jangkitan penyakit atau pun serangan serangga pada buah timun tersebut. Namun begitu aku tidak menyerahkan pada takdir semata-mata, penjagaan rapi dengan penyiraman baja dan juga kawalan serangga akan aku ketatkan.

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Hydroponik Hari Ke-16

Seperti sedia maklum, sebelum ini aku pernah gagal dalam percubaan menanam sayur menggunakan bekas hydroponik di sebabkan kekurangan sumber cahaya yang di dedahkan kepada pokok tersebut menyebabkan kesemua pertumbuhan pokok terbantut.
Jadi dua minggu yang lepas aku telah mengulang penanaman sayur menggunakan bekas hydroponik ini. Hari ini hasil yang agak memberangsangkan di mana sayur yang di tanam, tumbesarannya lebih baik daripada sebelum ini.

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Penanaman Pokok Gaharu atau Kharas

Gaharu/Agarwood adalah pokok dalam family Thymelaeceae. Pokok yang telah matang akan membesar sehingga 40 meter tinggi dan berdiameter 40cm. Pokok gaharu di hutan semulajadi mula mengeluarkan resin gaharu pada usia 20 hingga 45 tahun, bergantung pada ketahanan pokok dan tindakbalas kecederaan pokok. Pokok gaharu amat diminati kerana dapat menghasilkan aroma yang wangi dan menyenangkan apabila dibakar kayunya.Mengikut data yang dikeluarkan pada Persidangan Gaharu Dunia pertama di Vietnam terdapat 16 spesis dari genus Aquilaria yang mempunyai nilai komersil yang tinggi.
Pokok gaharu hidup di kawasan tanah pamah sehingga ketinggian 750m dari aras laut dan memerlukan taburan hujan dan kelembapan yang tinggi. Gaharu digunakan dalam industri minyak wangi, produk perubatan, perubatan Ayurvedic, majlis keagamaan dan sebagainya.

Merealisasikan Industri Gaharu bermula Dari Penanaman Pokok Karas Secara Ladang Di Malaysia

Bila menyebut gaharu, ramai di antara kita yang membayangkan harganya yang begitu mahal sehingga ada yang mengatakan ia lebih bernilai dari emas. Harganya boleh mencecah sehingga RM14,000 - RM20,000 sekilogram untuk kepingan gaharu yang bermutu tinggi. Namun, semua hasil ini diambil dari hutan dan kini realitinya, pokok karas diancam kepupusan.

Tanpa kesedaran untuk penanaman semula, negara kita mungkin tidak lagi dapat mengeksport hasil gaharu yang begitu tinggi permintaannya ke negara-negara Timur Tengah dan juga negara lain seperti Taiwan, Jepun dan sebagainya. Mungkin kita patut menoleh ke negara jiran yang lain seperti Indonesia, Thailand dan Myamar, mereka sudah jauh meninggalkan kita dari segi teknologi dan perladangan.

Mungkin, kekurangan sumber maklumat yang tepat dan juga permulaan modal yang tinggi untuk diusahakan secara komersil menjadi faktor ia kurang diminati. Wajar, agensi - agensi kerajaan yang ada memainkan peranan dalam menyalurkan fakta yang lengkap dan perkembangan teknologi harus dicapai dalam usaha menjadikan ia sebagai industri direalisasikan.

Ramai di antara kita yang tidak sedar, usaha penanaman pokok karas sudahpun dilakukan oleh beberapa agensi yang ada di beberapa tempat di negara kita, juga penyelidikan dalam penghasilan gaharu melalui kaedah suntikan dan inokulasi juga giat dijalankan.Namun, kurangnya pendedahan dan pengumpulan maklumat, ia kurang memberi impak dalam pelaksanaannya.

Untuk mereka yang berminat dalam penanaman pokok karas, mungkin ada berita gembira. Mulai tahun hadapan (2007), teknologi dalam penghasilan gaharu akan dibawa masuk ke negara kita. Usaha menjemput Prof. Blanchette oleh satu agensi kerajaan adalah sangat tepat pada masanya. Namun, jika kita tidak menanamnya, teknologi tiada makna.

Berbalik kepada usaha penanaman pokok karas secara ladang, beberapa faktor harus dipertimbangkan seperti pemilihan anak benih, jarak tanaman, kaedah tanaman, kaedah suntikan dan pasaran. Ia harus dinilai untuk meminimakan risiko yang ada dan mendapat hasil yang maksima selepas 7 tahun pelaburan.

Pertamanya, pemilihan anak benih sering menjadi persoalan. Ada yang mengatakan spesis A lebih baik dari spesis B dan ada yang sebaliknya kerana ia lebih cepat membesar dan lebih mahal. Seharusnya kita meneliti semula beberapa kajian, pokok karas sebenarnya mempunyai method yang berbeza dengan pokok lain. Pokok yang sihat dan membesar dengan cepat menghasilkan resin gaharu yang sedikit berbanding pokok yang sakit dan diganggu.

Ia sebenarnya selari dengan kejadian semulajadi gaharu di dalam hutan, pokok yang berada di kawasan berbatu dan mengalami tindakbalas kecederaan yang teruk menghasilkan gaharu yang lebih bermutu. Kita juga harus melihat kepada permintaan pasaran, spesis manakah yang menjadi pilihan pembeli dan mempunyai harga yang tinggi. Spesis Aquilaria Malaccencis adalah merupakan salah satu spesis yang mempunyai nilai komersil yang tinggi.

Manakala kaedah penanaman, jarak penanaman 6'x6' atau 10'x10' menghasilkan jumlah tanaman pada 430 pokok atau 1,000 pokok seekar. Penanaman secara intergrasi adalah lebih meminimunkan risiko, malahan memberi pulangan jangka pendek yang boleh menampung kos keseluruhan. Sulaman boleh dilakukan dengan tanaman herba dan tanaman kontang. Penjarakkan yang sesuai harus dilihat.

Selepas pokok karas mencapai usia 5 tahun, suntikan sejenis enzim dilakukan untuk penghasilan gaharu dan dibiarkan selama 2 tahun sebelum mendapat hasil. Perlu diingatkan, tanpa teknologi ini pokok karas tidak akan membentuk gaharu di dalamnya. Berbeza dengan semulajadi, gaharu terbentuk pada usia pokok 20 - 40 tahun melalui gangguan oleh fizikal atau microrganisme.

Banyak laporan di dada akhbar dan laman web, menyatakan setiap pokok menghasilkan gaharu bernilai sehingga RM14,000 - RM18,000. Tetapi, kita perlu menilai setiap aspek dan risiko. Mungkin tidak keterlaluan jika kita meletakkan RM1,000 sahaja untuk sepokok yang menghasilkan gaharu. Bayangkan anda menanam 1,000 pokok dan anda tentu dapat mengira angkanya. Malahan jika hanya 50% sahaja yang menjadi, jumlah pendapatannya masih tinggi!

Oleh itu, amat penting untuk kita semua memperolehi sebanyak mungkin maklumat untuk merealisasikan penanaman pokok karas secara ladang. Diharapkan ada agensi yang bertindak sebagai pemantau dan dapat menyimpan data semua ladang karas di negara kita. Maklumat sebegini amat berguna untuk rujukan dimasa akan datang.



Pengenalan Pokok Karas
- Aquilaria spp. adalah pokok dalam family Thymelaecae.
- Pokok yang telah matang akan membesar sehingga 40 meter tinggi dan berdiameter 40cm.
- Pokok Karas di hutan semulajadi mula mengeluarkan resin gaharu pada usia 20 hingga 45 tahun, bergantung pada ketahanan pokok dan tindakbalas kecederaan pokok.
- Terdapat 15 spesis dari genus Aquilaria mempunyai nilai komersil yang tinggi. Malaysia sendiri mempunyai 5 spesis yang amat berkualiti iaitu Aquilaria Hirta, A. Malaccencis, A. Beccariana, A. Rostrata dan A. Microcarpa.
- Hidup di kawasan tanah pamah sehingga ketinggian 750 m dari aras laut, dan memerlukan taburan hujan dan kelembapan yang tinggi.
- Pokok Karas merupakan spesis di bawah CITES Appendix II, merupakan spesis terancam kerana kepupusan populasinya.
- Gaharu digunakan dalam industri minyak wangi, produk perubatan, perubatan Ayurvedic, majlis keagaamaan dan sebagainya.

Senario di dalam Industri Gaharu
- Permintaan untuk gaharu semakin tinggi walaupun pengeluaran semakin berkurangan, menyebabkan harganya semakin meningkat setiap tahun.
- Kebanyakan gaharu dieksport kepada pemborong-pemborong di Singapura, Timur Tengah, Hongkong dan Taiwan.
- Harganya boleh mencecah sehingga RM 14 - 18 ribu sekilogram untuk gred Double Super. Malahan, harga pasaran untuk minyak gaharu juga amat tinggi iaitu sehingga RM45 ribu / kg. (kaedah penggredan kualiti kayu dan minyak masih belum dipiawaiankan dan bergantung kepada penjual dan pembeli).
- Asia Tenggara mengeksport gaharu bernilai RM48.3 million ke Arab Saudi dan bekalan hanya memenuhi 20% daripada permintaan pasaran.(sumber: TRAFFIC International 2002)
- Buat masa ini, kebanyakkan gaharu dikeluarkan daripada hasil hutan dan amat terhad. Tanpa penanaman semula, spesis ini akan terus diancam kepupusan disebabkan aktiviti pengambilan gaharu
- Penanaman gaharu di Malaysia masih baru dan belum popular, tetapi di negara lain seperti Indonesia, Thailand dan Kemboja sudah lama diusahakan. Malah ia mendapat sokongan yang amat kuat daripada pihak agensi kerajaan mereka dari segi modal dan teknologi.

Penggalakan Penanaman Gaharu Secara Ladang
bullet Penanaman pokok karas sesuai dijalankan di
1. Tanah terbiar
2. Kawasan rezab hutan simpan
3. kawasan pembalakan yang telah diterokai.
4. Dijalankan secara pertanian hutan ladang dan diintergrasikan dengan pelbagai tanaman lain seperti herba dan tanaman komoditi.
- Dapat menjana hasil ekonomi masyarakat setempat dan negara dalam bentuk eksport.
- Dapat menghijaukan bumi dan megurangkan pencerobohan kawasan hutan

Petikan dari Jasben Plantation

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Perhatian !

Laman-Agro.Blogspot.com juga boleh di capai dengan link http://laman-agro.co.cc

Harap maklum.


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Panduan Penanaman Serai

Samada untuk kegunaan harian ataupun untuk tujuan komersil, serai di tanam bagi kebanyakkan orang, namun ramai yang belum tahu panduan menanam serai. Gambar di atas serai di tanam menggunakan pasu bagi menjimatkan ruang tanah yang sempit di rumah.

Serai makan adalah sejenis tanaman saka dari famili Graminanea. Terdapat 2 spesis serai makan yang dikenali umum di peringkat antarabangsa sebagai ‘lemongrass’ iaitu Cymbopogon citratus dan Cymbopogon flexus. Spesis C. citrates tersebar luas dikawasan beriklim tropika, termasuk Malaysia, manakala penanaman C. Flexus lebih tertumpu dikawasan Malabar, India. Negara-negara utama yang menanam serai makan secara komersial adalah India, China, Guatemala dan Brazil. Di negara-negara ini serai makan diusahakan untuk pengeluaran minyak pati.Pengeluaran minyak pati dunia dalam tahun 80an ialah kira-kira 310 tan setahun. Di Malaysia, industri pengeluaran
minyak pati serai makan atau minyak-minyak pati lain hampir tidak wujud. Oleh itu, serai makan hanya ditanam untuk kegunaan segar sebagai perisa makanan.
Tanaman serai makan sesuai di tanam dikawasan beriklim tropika, cukup cahaya matahari dan hujan. Taburan hujan yang seragam dengan jumlah antara 250 cm dan 300 cm paling baik, walaupun tanaman ini agak tahan kepada kemarau. Tanaman ini juga sesuai dikebanyakan jenis tanah kecuali tanah yang terlalu liat dan salirannya tidak
memuaskan. Tanah gembur dari jenis lom berpasir adalah terbaik.
Tanaman serai makan C. citrates dibiak menggunakan anak berakar. Anak-anak serai perlu diambil daripada rumpun yang telah tua, berumur 8 hingga 9 bulan. Di dalam sesuatu rumpun, hanya anak-anak yang cergas iaitu sihat dan besar digunakan sebagai tanaman. Daun-daun dipotong meninggalkan batang setinggi 15-20 cm bersama dengan


Tanah hendaklah disediakan lebih awal supaya kerja menanam boleh dilakukan semasa permulaan musim hujan. Satu pusingan bajak piring diikuti oleh satu pusingan bajak putar biasanya mencukupi untuk mendapatkan tanah yang gembur. Sekiranya kawasan terlalu banyak rumpai, racun rumpai perlu disembur 2-3 minggu sebelum pembajakan.
Dua hingga tiga ‘batang’ serai ditanam bagi setiap lubang tanaman. Jarak tanaman dan kepadatan tanaman bergantung kepada kesuburan tanah. Untuk tanah yang kurang subur, jarak tanaman yang rapat digunakan dan sebaliknya bagi tanah yang subur.
Julat jarak antara baris ialah antara 0.6 m hingga 1.0 m manakala antara lubang dalam sesuatu baris ialah antara 0.3 m hingga 1.0 m. Pemerhatian di MARDI menunjukkan jarak tanaman 1.0 m antar baris x 0.5 m dalam baris iaitu memberi kepadatan 20,000 rumpun sehektar sesuai untuk diamalkan dikebanyakan jenis tanah.
Serai makan dikenali sebagai tanaman yang ‘menghauskan’ tanah. Oleh itu pembajaan yang sesuai adalah mustahak untuk menjamin kesuburan tanah dalam jangka panjang.
Keperluan pembajaan daripada segi kuantiti dan kekerapan bergantung kepada status kesuburan tanah. Biasanya baja ditabur 3 kali, sekali sebagai baja asas dan 2 kali sebagai baja tambahan. Baja asas di tabur dan digaul kedalam tanah semasa atau sebaik sahaja penanaman dilakukan. Baja tambahan pula dibubuh setiap 2 bulan selepas tanam. Jumlah baja yang diperlukan bagi sehektar tanaman ditanah mineral ialah 80-100 kg N, 40-60 kg P2O5 dan 40-80 kg K2o. Bagi Tanah gambut, kapur atau zeolite sebanyak 2.5 tan/ha perlu juga di tabur. Baja asas : Sebatian NPK 12:12:17:2
Baja Tambahan : Urea 65 kg setiap kali pembajaan dibubuh pada 2 dan 4 bulan selepas menanam.
Ladang tanaman perlu juga dikawal daripada rumpai terutamanya diperingkat awal pertumbuhan. Sekiranya penyediaan tanah dijalankan dengan baik, satu atau dua kali merumput biasanya mencukupi. Sehingga kini belum ada laporan mengenai serangga atau penyakit ke atas tanaman serai makan.
Penuaian serai makan untuk kegunaan segar boleh dilakukan 6 hingga 8 bulan selepas ditanam. Rumpun-rumpun digali menggunakan cangkul. Akar serta daun dipotong meninggalkan batang dengan upeh daun sepanjang 10 – 15 cm. Bagi tanaman yang berkepadatan 20,000 rumpun/ha, biasanya serumpun serai menghasilkan antara 30 dan 40
batang yang boleh dipasarkan. Daun dan batang yang biasanya dibuang boleh juga disuling untuk pengeluaran minyak pati. Untuk pengeluaran minyak pati pula, penuaian pertama juga dilakukan setelah tanaman berumur 6 hingga 8 bulan. Daun-daun dipotong lebih kurang 10 cm di atas paras tanah. Rumpun-rumpun dibiarkan tumbuh semula, dibaja dan dipotong semula setiap 3-4 bulan. Selepas kira-kira 4 tahun penanaman semula perlu dilakukan kerana hasilnya semakin rendah. Hasil daun segar setiap kali penuaian/pemotongan ialah antara 8 hingga 12 tan/ha bergantung kepada umur dan kesuburan tanaman. Oleh itu, anggaran hasil bagi tahun pertama ialah 16-24 tan/ha (2 kali penuaian) dan bagi tahun-tahun berikutnya ialah 32-48 tan/ha.
Dalam keadaan sekarang, dimana bilangan petani yang menanam serai makan secara komersial masih terhad, pendapatan yang didapati adalah agak lumayan untuk kegunaan segar. Dengan harga di peringkat ladang antara 2 dan 3 sen/batang (harga di Lembah Kelang). Pendapatan kasar semusim antara RM 10,000 dan RM 20,000 boleh diperolehi dari sehektar tanaman. Kos pengeluaran dianggarkan antar RM 3,000 hingga RM 4,000 sehektar.

Maklumat Pertanian - Ternakan, Tanaman, Perikanan & Agrotourism
Sekadar Info,Rujukan dan Ilmu.

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Penanaman Tomato

Keterangan Am:
Nama Biasa:
Nama Saintifik:
Lycopersicum esculentum
Kultivar Yang Disyorkan:-
Botania Tanaman:
Warna hijau, bercabang dan berbuku
Akar tunjang yang kuat dan banyak akar-akar serabut
Simple, pinnate serta berbulu
Bunga Warna kuning
Banyak perbezaan warna, saiz, bentuk dan rasa
Cara pendebungan:
Keperluan Asas Tanaman:
18 - 32°C
Taburan hujan:
260 mm/musim
Sehingga 1000 m atas paras laut
Jenis tanah :
Berbagai jenis tanah termasuk tanah gambut, BRIS dan tanah bekas lombong.
Tanah mesti mempunyai sistem saliran yang sempurna dan pengudaraan yang baik.
pH tanah:
5.5 - 6.5
Amalan Kultur:
Penyediaan Kawasan:
Kawasan dibajak dan digembur. Batas dibentuk selebar 1.2 m dan tinggi 20-30cm. Pengapuran dilakukan tidak kurang 14 hari sebelum menanam semasa pembajakan pada kadar 20-25 tan/ha. Batas ditutupi dengan sungkupan plastik selepas ditabur dengan tahi ayam.
Penanaman Di ladang:
Jenis bahan tanaman:
Keperluan bijibenih:
300 g/ha
Rawatan bijibenih:
Guna racun thiram pada kadar 3g/1000g bijibenih
Bijibenih disemai 6 minggu sebelum menanam di atas batas semaian, dalam polibeg atau dalam kotak semaian.
Jarak tanaman:
60 cm di antara pokok dalam 1 baris/batas dan 60 cm antara baris
Kepadatan tanaman:
21,333 pokok
1 minggu selepas menanam
Menyedia sokongan:
Selepas sebulan mengubah, sokong anak pokok dengan pancang kayu atau buluh.
Tunas-tunas sisi, daun-daun tua yang berpenyakit dan daun-daun berlebihan perlu dibuang untuk menggalakkan pengudaraan yang baik
Pengurusan Air:
Pengairan dilakukan dengan menyiram atau menggunakan sistem pengairan renjis. Kos bahan bagi sistem ini adalah RM 5,000 - RM 8,000 sehektar. Perparitan diperlukan bagi kawasan yang menghadapi masalah saliran. Parit ladang dibina untuk menyalirkan air bertakung ke parit utama.
Pengurusan Perosak :

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Adakah ini...?

Pagi tadi selepas membelek-belek pokok timun, aku menyiram pokok cili aku dan terperasan aku pada pucuk pokok cili padi yang semacam mengecil dan berkedut melengkung kebawah. Adakah ini serangan alphid ataupun kutu trip? Seingat aku semburan razcun kawalan tak pernah miss dari jadualnya..adakah ianya kekurangan nutrien? Aku khuatiru kekurangan nutrien, jadi aku cuba untuk menyiram dengan air baja NPK green. mudah-mudahan ok selepas ini.

Bawah ini pulah merupakan gambar pokok cili di usia hari ke 23.

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Timun Hari Ke-25

Hari ini 10.04.2008 merupakan hari yang ke 25 pokok timun ini selepas di transplant. Kelihatan putik-putik timun sudah keluar dan bermulanya tempoh berbuah. Dalam 2 minggu lagi Insyaallah boleh lah petik timun aku nih..

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Menanam Cili Kulai

Hari ini 8.4.2008 aku telah mula menyemai cili kulai yang aku beli tempohari. Sebanyak 18 pokok aku telah semaikan dalam bekas semaian dengan menggunakan media semaian 'Holand Peat Moss'. Kesemua biji benih telah di tabur di dalam peat moss tersebut dan di sembur dengan spray water untuk melembabkan media.

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Apa itu Peat Moss?

Peatmoss adalah gambut yang asal-asalnya dari moss (dari lumut-lumutan) seperti spagnum. Bahan ini terbentuk selama ribuan tahun, dalam lingkungan rawa-rawa, di beberapa bahagian di dunia.

Peatmoss ini merupakan media semaian di peringkat awal penanaman tanaman sayuran. Ianya di gunakan bagi mengalakkan pertumbuhan anak benih pokok. Di samping itu ianya juga dapat mengurangkan jangkitan serangan penyakit yang di sebabkan oleh kekurangan nutrien semasa tempoh semaian.

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Video Laman Agro

Video ini adalah keadaan sebenar mengenai penanaman beberapa jenis sayuran di rumah aku mengikut kaedah convensional. Insyaallah dalam masa yang terdekat ini aku akan mengalihkan pula kepada kaedah berteknologi seperti fertigasi dan juga aquaponic hydroponic. Beberapa video pokok timun, pokok cili padi dan juga pokok tomato telah di rakamkan petang tadi bersama dengan anak kecilku yang comel.

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Sedikit Info Mengenai Penanaman Cili

Benih Pokok Yang Hebat
1. Hybrid 233
2. Hybrid F1 469
3. hybrid 833

Media Semaian
a. Peat Moss

Media Tanaman
1. Sabut kelapa proses
2. Cocopeat (entah apa tu)
3. Sekam wap

Jenis Baja
Apa itu NPK?
N >> Untuk pertumbuhan daun
P >> Untuk pertumbuhan akar & buah
K >> Untuk buah dan penyakit
1. NPK 15:15:15 (pokok berumur 16 hari hingga mula berbunga)
2. NPK 12.12.17+MgO2+TE (Selepas berbunga)

1. Racun Avemec/mafa malathion-guna selepas pokok dipindah dlm polybag
2. Mancozeb baja kulat--guna mase buah baru berputik.
Jenis penyakit dan mengatasi serangga hama,kutu daun,lelompat daun, rama2 putih,ulat ratus- pegasus,malathion,cypermethrin,deltamethrin, dan lain-lain. Sembur atas dan bawah daun sebab seranggan ni bertelur dan bersarang di bawah daun.

Anthracnose, hawar pucuk,,bintik daun mancozeb, amistar,topsin M,antracol dll.

Cara penggunaan kena ikut arahan label. selepas 2-3 kali semburan kena tukar racun lain sebab takut serangga atau kulat jadi rintang.

Pertumbuhan Pokok
1. 3 ke 4 hari biji benih telah bercambah
2. 9 hari pokok mencapai 7cm

Jarak Penanaman
Jarak antara pokok 2.5 kaki dan jarak antara baris 5 kaki

Download Info Penanaman Cili Di Sini
Download Pelan Pemasaran Cili Di Sini

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Varieti Pokok Cili Di Malaysia

Varieti Pokok Cili

i. MARDI MC11:
Pedas, menyerupai Kulai dari segi bentuk, berhasil tinggi (17-24 mt/ha), tinggi pokok 80–110 cm, panjang buah 8–10 cm, 7–10g/biji, cili ini mengeluarkan hasil 10 minggu selepas ditanam dan pemetikan hasil sebanyak 30 kali semusim dan ia berbuah secara berterusan.
Ia mempunyai kandungan pepejal sebanyak 20% yang sesuai untuk kegunaan pemprosesan, menunjukkan toleran terhadap penyakit anthraknos (7% jangkitan) dan penyakit hawar
pucuk Choenophora. Kulit MC11 berkilat dan dapat mengekalkan warna walaupun selepas diproses. Dengan mempunyai ciri-ciri varieti yang baik, MC11 berpotensi untuk pasaran segar dan

ii. MARDI MC12:
Sederhana pedas, mempunyai cirri masak serentak dan matang awal. Tinggi pokok 60–80 cm, panjang buah 10–13 cm, 12 – 14 g/biji, oleh kerana daunnya tebal, MC12 kurang digemari oleh beberapa serangga perosak. Hasil tinggi 15-25 mt/ha. Ia mengeluarkan hasil 7 minggu selepas ditanam dan sangat produktif cepat matang tahan penyakit dan penuaian selang 5 hingga 6 hari sekali.

iii. Cili padi
Selain dari dua variety di atas, kini MARDI juga telah membangunkan beberapa cili padi yang mempunyai hasil tinggi menandingi varieti cili tempatan.

Jenis-jenis cili tempatan yang lain termasuklah yang CILIBANGGI yang telah dibangunkan oleh UKM seperti berikut:

Untuk kegunaan segar, mempunyai ciri masak serentak, biomas optima dan kurang masalah rebah. Purata hasil 1.17 kg/pokok.

Jenis untuk cili kering, berpotensi untuk ditanam oleh pekebun kecil. Purata hasil 1.02 kg/pokok.

Stabil, sangat pedas, sesuai untuk kegunaan segar dan berhasil tinggi.

Buah masak kering di pokok, oleh itu sesuai untuk cili kering. Saiz pokok kecil dan rendah, dan boleh ditanam dengan kepadatan 44,000 pokok/ha.

Hasil buah juga tinggi, kurang pedas dan sesuai untuk makan segar.

Saiz buah lebih besar dari CILIBANGGI-5, kering dipokok, dan buahnya pedas.

vii. CILI Kulai :
Jenis tempatan yang berbentuk panjang dan pedas. Varieti Kulai terdapat sebanyak
7 jenis cili kulai yang diusahakan di Malaysia. Penanaman jenis tersebut adalah bergantung kepada di mana sumber benih tersebut diperolehi.

Antara jenis Cili Kulai yang terdapat di pasaran
ialah :
a. CA 905 F1 Cili Kulai 905
b. CA 907 F1 Cili Kulai 905
c. CA 910 Kulai Tempatan
d. CA 914 F1 Cili Kulai Pedas
e. CA 915 F1 Cili Kulai Kering
f. CA 908 Cabai Kulai Kerinting
g. F1 Cili Kulai 568
h. F1 Cili Kulai 223
i. 8338 Kulai King.

Paling baru Hybrid F1 469 ketinggian pokok 35 cm (180 biji sepokok)
Hybrid 833 ketinggian pokok 2- 6 kaki (55 biji berat utk 1 kg buah bagi sepokok)

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Tips Penyemaian Biji Benih

Beberapa minggu lepas ada aku postkan tips penyemaian biji benih. Itu pun aku ambil daripada perkongsian org lain dan aku cuba sendiri. Alhamdulillah ianya membantu pembesaran semaian biji benih.

Klik pada imeg untuk pembesaran

1. Sediakan bahan-bahan seperti di atas.
2. Spraykan tisu dengan air untuk berikan kelembapan yang sekata.
3. Isikan biji benih ke dalam sebuah cawan. Tuang air sehingga memenuhi ¾ cawan tersebut. Tambahkan 1 sudu garam.
4. Biarkan biji benih selama 15 minit untuk membunuh kuman.
5. Toskan. Tebarkan tisu yang lembap itu, tabur biji benih ke atas permukaan tisu tersebut. Tutup dan lipat. Simpan dalam plastik lutsinar (beg plastik)
6. Tiup dengan nafas sehingga plastik kembung.
7. Ikat dengan kemas dan jemur di bawah matahari. Plastik sedia untuk di buka selepas 24-36jam.
8. Selepas 36 jam, buka plastik dan keluarkan anak benih, masukkan dalam tray anak semaian.
9. Gulung semula surat khabar dan ulangi langkah 5 ke langkah 8 untuk biji benih yang belum bercambah.
Klik pada imeg untuk pembesaran

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As you can see in the picture above, the cucumber plantation using polibag is usable for a limited space at your home. Normally who are living nearby the big city will facing with limited space to plant the vegetable and flower. So I suggest to utilized the polibag and racks. All these thing is very economic and can save alot of money compared if you using pot for plant.
The picture below is the cucumber's female flowers fall to the ground after heavy rain yesterday.

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Hydroponic 2nd Testing Update

Hari ini 6.4.2008. Gambar-gambar di atas dan di bawah merupakan update perkembangan penanaman sayuran menggunakan kedah hydroponik. Hari merupakan hari yang ke-7 penanaman hydroponik. Kangkung sangat cepat membesar sementara pokok sayur baby sawi dan juga bunga kobis agak sekata pembesaran benihnya. Benih salad pulak masih lagi mengeluarkan cambahnya lagi. Jadi malam tadi aku telah taburkan dengan benih salad yang baru aku beli dengan benih cili kulai kelmarin.

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